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What is Renewable Energy and Solar Energy?

Solar energy is a renewable, clean energy source that does not pollute the environment, does not create carbon emissions. With the increasing population and industrialization, the energy need in the world is constantly increasing. It is distressed to decrease the oil and natural gas resources day by day and to meet the increasing energy needs in countries that do not have these resources. Therefore, turning to cleaner and less costly renewable energy sources helps eliminate this problem.

When we say renewable energy sources, the first sources that come to mind are hydroelectric power plants (water power), wind power plant, solar power plant, biomass and geothermal sources.

How many of these resources are there in our world and how much of our electrical energy needs do we meet?

With solar energy, we can meet 3.8 times all needs, geothermal energy with all needs, half of all needs with wind energy, 40% of all needs with biomass, and 15% of all needs with hydro.

Why does the world not only generate electricity from renewable energy sources and use fossil fuels?

The clearest answer is the initial investment cost of renewable energy sources is high and it is not a base type that can provide continuous energy. For example, solar energy can only generate electricity during the day and wind energy can generate electricity if there is wind. For example, solar energy can only generate electricity during the day and wind energy can generate electricity if there is wind. The best way to solve this is by applying hybrid systems or using storage systems. The share of solar energy in electricity generation in the world and in our country is increasing day by day and the studies in this field are becoming more and more important.

What is Photovoltaic - PV System?

The method of obtaining electrical energy from solar energy is called photovoltaic - PV system and electricity is obtained from semiconductor plates called solar panels. The basis of solar energy is based on the collection of photons coming from the sun through solar panels to convert the energy carried by photons into electrical energy. With the photons hitting the solar panel, electrons are attracted to the surface of the panel. This causes voltage to form between the upper and lower layers of the solar panel. The electrical circuit formed along the top and bottom of the panel provides power flow to the electronic equipment. To provide power to a building or house, it is necessary to place solar panels at the rate determined according to the energy needs.

The first thing that comes to mind in the production of electricity from solar energy is the photovoltaic cells inside the solar panels that convert the solar rays into electrical current. The main components of solar energy systems consist of solar panels and inverter, panel carrier system and BOS (Balance of System).

Inverter are devices that convert direct current electricity from solar panels to alternating current, that is to utility electricity. Panel carrier system consists of PV panel carrier systems and mounting apparatus. In solar power plants, the part other than panel, inverter and construction is called BOS (Balance of System). Infrastructure consists of AG – OG cable, connector, paralleling boards, switchgear equipment, low voltage board and salt, transformer, medium / high voltage board and salt, breaker cells, Scada system, construction works, wire fences, lighting, camera systems. 

What is Solar Power Plant - SPP?

Solar Power Plant is the establishment of the structure connected to the electricity grid (on grid) at very great powers. Here, hundreds, thousands and even tens of thousands of PV panels are installed with very special mechanical construction on very large areas. 

It is connected to the national grid by obtaining power at MW or GW dimensions and generating millions of kWh of electricity.

SSP installation costs are different for each site, depending on the characteristics of the ground, variability of factors such as snow and wind load locally, rain, erosion and associated drainage conditions, variability of land slopes, equipment used, design status and distance of the network transmission line.

In addition to financing options for solar power plant investments, the government also has very serious incentives. SSP investments receive a more specific government incentive than other renewable energy sources. Investment costs are also decreasing every year in solar power plants, where the state-guaranteed production cost of 133 USD per MWh is produced.

What are the Considerations for the Selection and Installation of the SPP Site?

First of all, the location of the site where the SSP will be established, its coordinates and how much radiation it receives is important.

In the same way, the altitude of this site, its height above sea level is also very important, because PV panels do not like temperature and humidity and lose performance, although they love lots of sunlight. It will be useful to measure with a pyranometer or to use simulation programs such as PVGIS, PVSOL, PVMAP or PVSYST when determining the issues that will constitute data for the feasibility such as how much radiation the SSP field receives, how much electricity it will generate.

Another factor is the shadowing of the site. If a nearby mountain or hill, a tree, etc. shadows PV panels at certain times of the day, this will cause the efficiency of PV panels to decrease and generate less electricity.

The slope of the site where SSP will be established and which direction it is facing is another important factor. An ideal SSP site has a slope of 6-8 degrees and should face the south.

The size of a site where the SSP will be established should be approximately 12 decares / MW and these transportation routes should reach 13-14 acres together with the administrative and security building etc.

The soil structure of the site where the SSP will be established is also very important, so a ground survey must be done when choosing the land. In a good field, the ground should be rocky and should not hold water. If there is an area with excessive rain and water retention, a very good drainage system should definitely be created.

While mechanical constructions are mounted on the soil ground, they should be fixed by fastening, core drilling or concreting method. The construction foot should ideally enter 150-180 cm of soil.

Another factor to consider when choosing a site is whether there is a thermal power plant, cement plant or mine quarry nearby. Because dust and smoke coming out of these places will form a thin film layer on the surface of PV panels, which will decrease the efficiency and cause the panels to produce less electricity.

It is also very important in terms of cost that the electricity generated by the SSP will be supplied to the national grid system through which transformer center. This line, which is defined as the ETL distance (Energy Transmission Line), should be 0.5-1 km / MW in an ideal area.

Another imperative is the grounding of all equipment and constructions in the SSP field to have equal potential and the establishment of a good lightning rod system.

Edikli GES - Solar Energy Plant
Edikli GES - Solar Energy Plant
Edikli GES - Solar Energy Plant
Edikli GES - Solar Energy Plant
Edikli GES - Solar Energy Plant
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